CEDE Project

Consensus for experimental design in electromyography (CEDE) project

The Consensus for Experimental Design in Electromyography (CEDE) project is an international initiative, which aims to guide decision-making in recording, analysis, and interpretation of EMG across all applications including surface and invasive/intra-muscular methods and extends to guidance for specific applications.

The major output of the project is the development of a series of matrices to provide guidance for planning and interpretation of EMG methods using a Delphi consensus process. Each matrix is designed to not only provide recommendations but also provide detailed justification for the recommendations such that the user (researcher performing the research, reviewer, user of the research data, etc) is fully informed.

The following matrices have been published:

1. Electrode Selection Matrix

Includes a description of general design features and considerations for each type of electrode; pros and cons of each method; and four clusters of recommendations based on common experimental questions: 1) What muscles can be recorded?; 2) What type of information can be estimated?; 3) Are the recordings representative of the entire muscle?; 4) What types of contractions can yield relevant data?

2. Amplitude Normalization Matrix

Includes a description of general considerations for normalization, design features that should be reported, definitions of each method, the pros and cons of each method, and 10 experimental contexts and FAQs.

3. Terminology Matrix

Includes the definitions for physiological and technical terms that are common in EMG research, with key information on each definition provided in a comment section, and an extensive Appendix section with basic principles of recording and analysis of EMG data.

4. High-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) Matrix

Presents consensus statements regarding the use of HDsEMG. The matrix is organized according to three main applications of the technique (regional activation, muscle fiber properties, and single motor unit activity), for each we included general considerations and definitions, recommendations on electrode montage, type and configuration, location and orientation, data analysis and interpretation.

5. Single Motor Unit (SMU) Matrix

Presents consensus statements regarding the recording and analysis of SMU activity with both invasive and non-invasive methods. The matrix is organized in 4 tables – the first table provides considerations for electrode type, summarizing their advantages and disadvantages when used during different testing conditions. The second table provides recommendations on SMU decomposition techniques, including processing, analysis, contraction type and longitudinal motor unit tracking. The third table provides recommendations on Reporting of SMU discharge characteristics, such as recruitment/derecruitment thresholds, discharge rate, variability measures, and doublets. And finally, table 4 provides recommendations on Measures of association between SMU discharge times, including short-term synchronization, common drive and coherence.

CEDE Project coordinator

Manuela Besomi

CEDE members:

Paul W Hodges
Jaap Van Dieën
Aleš Holobar
Catherine Disselhorst-Klug
Dario Farina
Deborah Falla
Edward A Clancy

Eric Perreault
François Hug
John C Rothwell
Karen Søgaard
Kevin McGill
Kylie Tucker
Madeleine Lowery

Matthew C Kiernan
Richard G Carson
Roberto Merletti
Roger M Enoka
Simon Gandevia
Thor Besier
Tim Wrigley

EMCRs collaborators:

Lara McManus
Alessio Gallina
Eduardo Martinez-Valdes
Alessandro Del Vecchio
Chenyun Dai

Valter Devecchi
Taylor Dick
Wolbert van den Hoorn
Matthew Flood

The CEDE project team acknowledges funding from The University of Queensland (UQ) Early Career Researcher (ECR) Development: Knowledge Exchange & Translation (Kx&T) Fund, and support from the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK), OT Bioelettronica, and Cambridge Electronic Design Ltd.